Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal. Motivation and work affect each other equally both ways. We don't just do things because we want to, we do them because in the end there is something that we will gain like a reward in some way,shape, or form. What motivates people to do things is different for everyone and will obviously affect every individual differently.


Motivational Concepts
Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology

Fascinated by Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory, people in the early 20th century began to classify and name certain behaviors as instincts. Although they named the instincts, they didn't explain them. naming was not satisfying.
Drives and Incentives
After the instinct theory of motivation dropped, the dive-in reduction theory came in later. This means that we are driven on the things we want and we behave based on it. Our physiological goal and our drive reduction are to keep a homeostasis state. Our natural body tries to keep us in this condition. For example, if it’s warm outside, we sweat to keep ourselves cool. In addition, we are also influenced by incentives. Theses can be either positive or negative. This is like our drive to do what we want or something that triggers it.

Hunger
There's more to hunger than you would imagine, other than the hypothalamus. Our culture plays a big role in our eating habits, and some people's nutrition is disrupted by eating disorders.
The Physiology of Hunger
According to a procedure done by A.L. Washburn, "the stomach contractions (transmitted by the stomach balloon) accompany our feelings of hunger (indicated by a key press)." The body's chemistry also affects the body's hunger. Researchers located hunger controls within the hypothalamus.
external image hypothalamus.gifThis regulates the body's weight as it influences our feelings of hunger and satiety. Therefore, in order to maintain weight, our bodies adjust it's metabolic rate of energy expenditure.
The Appetite Hormones:
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The Psychology of Hunger
As our hunger diminishes, our eating behavior changes. Our preferences for specific tastes are not only genetic and universal, but cultural as well. Not only that, but low self-esteem and negative emotions combine with stressful life experiences to influence our eating habits, therefore producing anorexia and bulimia. Women with low self-esteem tend to have a bad body image and eating disorders. They feel that by controlling their eating and weight, they feel greater control of their lives.

Motivation at Work
As the psychology book that we use in my psychology class states, “work supports us, work connects us, work defines us”. Everyone views work differently, some view it as a job, some as a career and some as a calling. Those people who view their work as a calling tend to obtain the highest satisfaction in work and in life. Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology is the application of psychological concepts to optimize human behavior in the workplace. In order for one to do good in their job, you have to actually be motivated to achieve better things, not just the norm.

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There are two main fields, personnel psychology and organizational psychology. Personnel psychology is a sub field of (I/O) psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development. Personnel selection’s goal is to match people’s strengths with work that enables them and their organizations to flourish. Identifying people’s strengths is essential toward workplace effectiveness. When going for an interview, one might be very nervous because first impressions are everything right? Well studies have shown that an interviewers opinions are very error-prone the predictions are. Some mistakes that interviewers don’t take into consideration are that people can change, they don’t check up on people they don’t hire, assume that what they see is what they get, and the interviewer’s mood in the time of the interview. Structured interviews ask the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales. These type of interviews pinpoint strengths. Organizational psychology examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change. Achievement motivation is a desire for significant accomplishment, for mastering skills or ideas, for control and for rapidly attaining a high standard. People with high achievement motivation do achieve more. Satisfaction and engagement are also essential for a good workplace, satisfaction with work creates satisfaction with life. In order to be engaged with work, you have to actually like what you do.
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Sexual Motivation
Sex is a part of life. If this wasn't true you wouldn't be reading this. Its nature's way of helping us create and survive. When two people fell attracted to each other they are moved by their genes. Sexual behaviors are different depending both the place and time and that the range of "normal" sex interests and behaviors is very broad.
Describing Sexual Behavior
Thanks to Alfred Kinsey and his colleagues who started testing to describe sexual behaviors along with other testers.
The Physiology of Sex
Physical, the human body's sexual response cycle normally follows a pattern of four steps: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. During resolution males have a refractory period in which arousal and orgasm are not possible. Female body's however don't have a refractory period so they can keep going for as long as they like. There are also sexual disorders, such as premature ejaculation for males or orgasmic problems for females which means they have trouble having one or they have never experienced one before. These sexual disorders are successfully being treated treated by new methods which assume that a person can learn to and modify their sexual response. Then the external hormones plus the hypothalamus, help our bodies function as a male or female. In non human animals though, they help stimulate their sexual activity. In humans the sex hormones influence our sexual behavior more loosely, especially when there is a high enough level.
The Psychology of Sex
Things outside our bodies can cause both male and female to get excited. Some things your partner may contain can cause you to fell less aroused of your partner. Together with internal hormonal push and external push of sexual stimuli, fantasies affect sexual arousal.
Adolescent Sexuality
Teenagers physical maturation comes from a sexual dimension to the person they become. Culture i a big influence too because the age in which they begin to have sex and the age of impregnated girls. A near-crisis of sexual transmitted infections has started new research and educational programs to adolescent sexuality.
Sexual Orientation
Someones same sex or different sex likes are nether willingly chosen or willingly changed. New evidence has shown that new links have been discovered to a sexual orientation with genetic influences, prenatal hormones, and certain areas in the brain structures. The increasing amount of sexual orientation is biologically affected is associated with the increase of gay and lesbian acceptance and their relationships.
Sex and Human Values
Learning about sex and its research is not value-free. Some say that sex-related values should be acknowledged, showing the emotional importance of sexual expression. Human sexuality best affirms our deep need to belong.
The Need to Belong
Being the human beings that we are, we are motivated to not only eat and reproduce, but to bond with important others. We are motivated to not only eat and reproduce, but to bond with important others.
Aiding Survival
Social bonds boosted our ancestors' survival rate. Attachments served as a powerful survival impulse. Cooperation in groups also enhance survival. People in every society on Earth belong to groups.
Wanting to Belong
The need to belong
colors our thoughts and emotions. We spend a great deal of time thinking about our actual and hope-for relationships. According to Berscheid, 1985, "Happiness hits close to home."

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Acting to Increase Social Acceptance
Our self-esteem becomes high when we feel included, accepted, and loved by those important to us. We tend to avoid rejection by comforting to group standards and we seek to make favorable impressions. Our quest for acceptance motivates us to spend most of our money on clothes, cosmetics, and diet and fitness aids. The need to belong feeds on both deep attachments and menacing threats.
Maintaining Relationships
In order to feel wanted or needed, we resist breaking social bonds. We feel sort of distressed when we part from those important to us. The fear of being alone may seem worse than the pain of emotional and physical abuse, which causes people to remain in abusive relationships. We tend to feel overwhelmed by negative emotions when something threatens or dissolves our social ties. Anxiety, jealousy, loneliness, and guilt all involve threatened disruptions of our need to belong and may cause certain people to take action. Charles "Andy" Williams for example, "went on a shooting spree at his suburban California high school, killing 2 and wounding 13", (Bowles & Kasindorf, 2001).
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Fortifying Health
People who feel supported by close relationships live with better health and lower risk for psychological disorders and premature death than those who lack social support. According to Baumeister and Leary's (1995) convention, "human beings are fundamentally and persuasively motivated by a need to belong".

Related Chapters:
Social Psychology
The Story of Psychology
Abnormal Psychology


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