physiotherapy exercises
Raquel Guzman
Gabriella Perez
Mai Tran
Mitzy Barraza
Tiana Lupematasilla

Psychological disorders are viewed as “harmful dysfunction” where behavior is labeled as harmful and dysfunctional when it’s judged to be atypical or disturbing. This abnormal behavior is viewed as disordered when others find it unjustifiable in a society.

Understanding Psychological Disorders
Medical Perspective: A mental illness needs to be diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms and cured through therapy, which could include treatment in a psychiatric hospital . They believe that mental illnesses are diagnosable disorders of the brain


Is this graph the percentage of each racial group that suffers from these disorders?
Bio Psycho Social Perspective:
Comes to recognized that the mind and the body are inseparable. With that said, stress and negative emotions add on to physical illness, and physical abnormalities take part in contributing experiences of pain.

Classifying Psychological Disorders:
In psychology and psychiatry, the diagnostic classification describes disorders, but also predicts the future of it, its treatment, and “stimulates” research into its causes. The most reliable source that classifies psychological disorders is the American Psychiatric Association ’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , also known as the DSM-IV. It defines 17 major categories of mental disorder and describes them as well as listing their “prevalence to explain their causes.”

Labeling Psychological Disorders
Labels create preconceptions that guide our perceptions that guide our perceptions and our interpretations. If people form their impressions of psychological disorder from the popular media, stereotypes begin to arise. Labels lead to bias perceptions and can change reality, but “There is a purpose to psychiatric diagnosis. It is to enable mental health professionals to (a) communicate with each other about the subject matter of their concern, (b) comprehend the pathological processes involved in psychiatric illness, and (c) control psychiatric outcomes.”


Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Disorders are marked by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety. Four of these disorders include the following:
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder where a person is unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy.
2. Panic Disorders, where a person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread.
3. Phobias are when a person feels irrationally afraid of a specific object or situation.
4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is when a person is troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions.


Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder
Of From those who suffer from Generalized Anxiety Disorder, two thirds of them are women who are tense, worry about bad things occurring, and they suffer from extreme muscular tension, agitation, and sleeplessness. Concentration is very difficult because their focus alternates from one worry to another.

Panic Disorders strike suddenly, wreaks havoc and disappears (just like a tornado!). Agoraphobia is fear or avoidance of situation in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes.


Phobias focus anxiety on a specific object, situation or activity. They are “irrational fears that disrupt behavior.”



Obsessive Compulsive Disorders
With OCD, people become obsessed with senseless or offensive thoughts that don’t seem to go away. They take part in compulsive, rigid, behavior checking, ordering, cleaning, or hoarding.

Explaining Anxiety Disorders
There are two contemporary perspectives: The Learning Perspective and the Biological Perspective.
Learning Perspective
Fear Conditioning: Researchers have linked genera anxiety with classical conditioning of fear. The short list of naturally painful and frightening events can multiply into a long list of human fears.

Stimulus Generalization: Conditioned fears sometimes may remain long after we have forgotten the experiences that caused it.

Reinforcement: This helps maintain the one phobia and compulsions that arise. Compulsive behaviors similarly reduce anxiety.

Observational Learning: We learn fear by observing others’ fear.

Biological Perspective
This helps explain why we learn some fears more readily and why some individuals are more vulnerable.

Natural Selection: We are biologically prepared for fear threats faced by our ancestors.

Genes: Some people more than others seem genetically “predisposed” to particular fears and high anxiety.

Physiology : General anxiety, panic attacks, and even obsessions and compulsions are biologically measurable as an over arousal of brain areas in impulsive control and habitual behaviors.

Mood Disorders

Is defined as two groups of mood disorders:
Major Depressive Disorders (MDD) a person experiences lingering hopelessness and lethargy until usually rebounding the normality . Usually commonly called major depression, unipolar depression, or clinical depression, where a person has two or more major depressive episodes. There are several subtypes or course specifier:
  • Atypical Depression- Is characterized by mood reactivity. There is a significant weight gain or increase in appetite.
  • Melancholic Depression- Is characterized by a loss of pleasure in any activities and has excessive weight kiss and extreme feeling of guilt.


Bipolar Disorder
Also known as “Manic depressive disorder," a person alternates between depression and mania, an overexcited, hyperactive state. FRAGMENT Causes mood swings that range from of the lows of depression to the highs of mania. When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. The person is also overtalkative, overactive which can be easily irritated, has little need of sleep, and shows fewer sexual inhibitations. When your mood shifts in the other direction, you may feel euphoric and full of energy. Mood shifts may only occur only a few times a year, or as often as several times a day. In some cases, bipolar disorder causes symptoms of depression and mania at the same time.
Bipolar disorder is divided into several subtypes. Each has a different pattern of symptoms. Types of bipolar disorder include:
· Bipolar I Disorder: Mood swings with bipolar I cause significant difficulty in your job, school or relationships. Manic episodes can be severe and dangerous.
· Bipolar II Disorder: Bipolar II is less severe, you may have an elevated mood, irritability and some changes in your functioning, but you can still continue to do you daily routine.
· Cyclothymia. Cyclothymia is a mild form of bipolar disorder. With cyclothymia, hypo mania and depression can be disruptive, but the highs and lows are not as severe as they are with other types of bipolar disorder.


Although the term "schizophrenia" means "split mind," it does not refer to the splitting of the personality into several functioning personality subtypes as in dissociative identity disorder. Rather, the term was intended to convey a splitting of the normally integrated cognitive/behavioral/emotional functioning of the brain. For example, a person may suddenly become emotionally agitated even though there is no apparent objective reason for this change.
Schizophrenia could be caused by several factor. A person can have a high risk of having schizophrenia because his family have a history of mental illness( genetic factor), while the other having a high chance of developing schizophrenia because of social stress, pregnancy stress, or enviromental factor...that he experienced during childhood, teen or adult years.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
As the illness continues, psychotic symptoms develop:
  • An appearance or mood that shows no emotion
  • Bizarre motor behavior in which there is less reaction to the environment
  • False beliefs or thoughts that have nothing to do with reality
  • Hearing, seeing, or feeling things that are not there
  • Thoughts "jump" between unrelated topics such as “word salad”
  • Symptoms can be different depending on the type of schizophrenia.


Catatonic type:
  • Anxiety
  • Decreased sensitivity to pain
  • Inability to take care of personal needs.
  • Extreme negative feelings
  • Motor disturbances
  • Rigid muscles
  • Repeating another’s speech or movement

Paranoid type:

Disorganized type:
  • Child-like behavior
  • Inappropriate laughter
  • Not understandable
  • Repetitive behaviors
  • Social withdrawal
  • Showing no emotion at all

Personality Disorders

Some maladaptive behavior pattern harm peoples daily social routine life without anxiety, depression, or delusions. For society, the most troubling of these is the anti-social personality disorder.

People with personality disorders will have inappropriate behaviors such as coping in an inappropriate, stereotyped, and maladaptive manner. There are many types of this disorder:
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder- a fearful sensitivity to rejection that predisposes the withdraws. This disorder expresses anxiety.
  • Schizoid Personality Disorder-This cluster expresses eccentric behaviors, such as the social disengagements.
  • Histrionic Personality Disorder- A person with this disorder displays shallow, attention-getting emotions and goes to great lengths to gain others’ admire his/her accomplishments.
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder- A person with that disorder pays severe attention in him/herself. They exaggerate on their own importance. They find criticism hard to accept and often react with anger or humiliation.



Most songs have some psychological interpertation to them. There are songs that express being socially psychotic, or that even depict sex in a non sexual way. Others that put down or even defend people with psycological illnesses. Listen to the following songs as a good example of different types of music with some kind of psychological meaning.

Get a playlist! Standalone player Get Ringtones

People with psychological disorders are often labeled as crazy, psychotic, or plain weird. Just as it is stated in the following song.

I could not embebed the actual video because youtube is evil. The official music video feature a some what of a Roscharch Ink Blot style. Its much more interesting. Here's the link:

Fun Quizzes link:

Do you have borderline personality?

What is your personality disorder?

What Freudian Stage are you in?

Do you need therapy?

What's your best trait?